What is the difference between closed captioning and subtitles?

In some countries, particularly the United States, “closed captions” are created for viewers who are deaf or have difficulty hearing. Along with the words being spoken, closed captions convey things like sound effects, speakers, and other elements that don’t involve speech.

Subtitles differ slightly, as they are intended for viewers who can hear but not understand the language being spoken. Subtitles demonstrate the spoken content but not sound effects. Subtitles are often associated with translation.

The difference between SDH and standard CC is in the way words are formatted on the screen. Closed captioning is shown in white on a black background, while SDH is formatted as text with contrasting outlines. It is worth noting that HD formats such as Blu-ray discs only use SDH subtitles as they are unable to support the format needed for closed captions.

You can learn more about closed captioning here.

What Subtitling formats do you work with?

.srt (SubRip Subtitling): This file does not contain video data. It is a text file and is widely used file format.
.vtt (WebVTT ): stands for 'web video text tracks' and accommodates for text formatting, rendering options and positioning.
STL: stands for 'Spruce Subtitle File' and is primarily used for DVD Studios Pro software.
.ttml (TTML): stands for 'Timed Text Mark-up Language' and is used for delivering subtitles for television content re-purposed for the web.
.cap (CAP): This file format is used in video editing systems. It is widely used for encoding and broadcast media.
Other file formats: LambdaCAP, MacCaption (.mcc), Quick Timed Text (.qt.txt), DFXP (.dfxp), Avid DS Subtitle File (.txt)

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